1. Stop the stream valiantly, drive away the desires, O Brahmana!
When you have understood the destruction of all that was made, you
will understand that which was not made.
2. If the Brahmana has reached the other shore in both laws (in
restraint and contemplation), all bonds vanish from him who has
3. He for whom there is neither this nor that shore, nor both, him,
the fearless and unshackled, I call indeed a Brahmana.
4. He who is thoughtful, blameless, settled, dutiful, without
passions, and who has attained the highest end, him I call indeed a
5. The sun is bright by day, the moon shines by night, the warrior
is bright in his armour, the Brahmana is bright in his meditation; but
Buddha, the Awakened, is bright with splendour day and night.
6. Because a man is rid of evil, therefore he is called Brahmana;
because he walks quietly, therefore he is called Samana; because he
has sent away his own impurities, therefore he is called Pravragita
(Pabbagita, a pilgrim).
7. No one should attack a Brahmana, but no Brahmana (if attacked)
should let himself fly at his aggressor! Woe to him who strikes a
Brahmana, more woe to him who flies at his aggressor!
8. It advantages a Brahmana not a little if he holds his mind back
from the pleasures of life; when all wish to injure has vanished, pain
9. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who does not offend by body, word,
or thought, and is controlled on these three points.
10. After a man has once understood the law as taught by the Well-
awakened (Buddha), let him worship it carefully, as the Brahmana
worships the sacrificial fire.
11. A man does not become a Brahmana by his platted hair, by his
family, or by birth; in whom there is truth and righteousness, he is
blessed, he is a Brahmana.
12. What is the use of platted hair, O fool! what of the raiment of
goat-skins? Within thee there is ravening, but the outside thou
13. The man who wears dirty raiments, who is emaciated and covered
with veins, who lives alone in the forest, and meditates, him I call
indeed a Brahmana.
14. I do not call a man a Brahmana because of his origin or of his
mother. He is indeed arrogant, and he is wealthy: but the poor, who
is free from all attachments, him I call indeed a Brahmana.
15. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who has cut all fetters, who never
trembles, is independent and unshackled.
16. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who has cut the strap and the thong,
the chain with all that pertains to it, who has burst the bar, and is
17. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who, though he has committed no
offence, endures reproach, bonds, and stripes, who has endurance for
his force, and strength for his army.
18. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who is free from anger, dutiful,
virtuous, without appetite, who is subdued, and has received his last
19. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who does not cling to pleasures,
like water on a lotus leaf, like a mustard seed on the point of a
20. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who, even here, knows the end of his
suffering, has put down his burden, and is unshackled.
21. Him I call indeed a Brahmana whose knowledge is deep, who
possesses wisdom, who knows the right way and the wrong, and has
attained the highest end.
22. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who keeps aloof both from laymen and
from mendicants, who frequents no houses, and has but few desires.
23. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who finds no fault with other
beings, whether feeble or strong, and does not kill nor cause
24. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who is tolerant with the intolerant,
mild with fault-finders, and free from passion among the passionate.
25. Him I call indeed a Brahmana from whom anger and hatred, pride
and envy have dropt like a mustard seed from the point of a needle.
26. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who utters true speech, instructive
and free from harshness, so that he offend no one.
27. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who takes nothing in the world that
is not given him, be it long or short, small or large, good or bad.
28. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who fosters no desires for this
world or for the next, has no inclinations, and is unshackled.
29. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who has no interests, and when he
has understood (the truth), does not say How, how? and who has reached
the depth of the Immortal.
30. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who in this world is above good and
evil, above the bondage of both, free from grief from sin, and from
31. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who is bright like the moon, pure,
serene, undisturbed, and in whom all gaiety is extinct.
32. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who has traversed this miry road,
the impassable world and its vanity, who has gone through, and reached
the other shore, is thoughtful, guileless, free from doubts, free from
attachment, and content.
33. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who in this world, leaving all
desires, travels about without a home, and in whom all concupiscence
34. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who, leaving all longings, travels
about without a home, and in whom all covetousness is extinct.
35. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who, after leaving all bondage to
men, has risen above all bondage to the gods, and is free from all and
36. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who has left what gives pleasure and
what gives pain, who is cold, and free from all germs (of renewed
life), the hero who has conquered all the worlds.
37. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who knows the destruction and the
return of beings everywhere, who is free from bondage, welfaring
(Sugata), and awakened (Buddha).
38. Him I call indeed a Brahmana whose path the gods do not know, nor
spirits (Gandharvas), nor men, whose passions are extinct, and who is
an Arhat (venerable).
39. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who calls nothing his own, whether
it be before, behind, or between, who is poor, and free from the love
of the world.
40. Him I call indeed a Brahmana, the manly, the noble, the hero, the
great sage, the conqueror, the impassible, the accomplished, the
41. Him I call indeed a Brahmana who knows his former abodes, who
sees heaven and hell, has reached the end of births, is perfect in
knowledge, a sage, and whose perfections are all perfect.