1, 2. A man is not just if he carries a matter by violence; no, he
who distinguishes both right and wrong, who is learned and leads
others, not by violence, but by law and equity, and who is guarded by
the law and intelligent, he is called just.
3. A man is not learned because he talks much; he who is patient,
free from hatred and fear, he is called learned.
4. A man is not a supporter of the law because he talks much; even
if a man has learnt little, but sees the law bodily, he is a supporter
of the law, a man who never neglects the law.
5. A man is not an elder because his head is grey; his age may be
ripe, but he is called `Old-in-vain.'
6. He in whom there is truth, virtue, love, restraint, moderation,
he who is free from impurity and is wise, he is called an elder.
7. An envious greedy, dishonest man does not become respectable by
means of much talking only, or by the beauty of his complexion.
8. He in whom all this is destroyed, and taken out with the very
root, he, when freed from hatred and wise, is called respectable.
9. Not by tonsure does an undisciplined man who speaks falsehood
become a Samana; can a man be a Samana who is still held captive by
desire and greediness?
10. He who always quiets the evil, whether small or large, he is
called a Samana (a quiet man), because he has quieted all evil.
11. A man is not a mendicant (Bhikshu) simply because he asks others
for alms; he who adopts the whole law is a Bhikshu, not he who only
12. He who is above good and evil, who is chaste, who with knowledge
passes through the world, he indeed is called a Bhikshu.
13, 14. A man is not a Muni because he observes silence (mona, i.e.
mauna), if he is foolish and ignorant; but the wise who, taking the
balance, chooses the good and avoids evil, he is a Muni, and is a Muni
thereby; he who in this world weighs both sides is called a Muni.
15. A man is not an elect (Ariya) because he injures living
creatures; because he has pity on all living creatures, therefore is a
man called Ariya.
16, 17. Not only by discipline and vows, not only by much learning,
not by entering into a trance, not by sleeping alone, do I earn the
happiness of release which no worldling can know. Bhikshu, be not
confident as long as thou hast not attained the extinction of desires.